Unit Two Summary: Reverberations

Reverberations in this unit consisted of repetitions of revivals and reforms. Throughout history, over centuries and decades we see many revivals and reforms of past styles and civilizations.

We started this unit with regions + perspectives. The western world and the eastern world were very different in their points of views and perspectives. They each created “rules books” for what they believed design should be.

The Western rule book:

1. Revive the past using classical language. They said ‘No’ to gothic style and ‘Yes’ to ancient Greece and Rome styles.
2. Strive for harmony + order in all things
3. Layer groves + stacks when possible
4. Emphasize surface through materiality
5. Follow the Rules (proportioning system)
6. Place man at the center
7. Strive for position through patronage
8. Move forward the secular (not just religious) agenda
9. Get some perspective, not only vertical but horizontal exploration
10. Expand your physical world

With some similarities, but also differences, the Eastern rule book:

1. Maintain continuity with the past
2. Strive for harmony + order in all things
3. Continue to layer groves + stacks
4. Celebrate surface+ materiality (Kesava Temple, “Dancing Eye”)
5. Follow the Rules
6. Place community needs before your own
7. Strive for position through patronage
8. emphasize spiritual (not just religious) connections. (Individual shrines)
9. Sustain systems of representation
10. Expand your inner world. (Spiritually)

     The City of Venice, Italy is often called the “City of floating stone”. Andrea Palladio, a designer who has heavily influenced our designs still to this day, left his mark on the city of Venice. Much of his most renowned work is found there. The San Giorgio Magiore is a church on an island. Palladio designed the proportions for the person looking across the lagoon to make it appear correct to the eye. One of his most famous designs is the Villa Rotunda. The Villa Rotunda had four identical entrances, one on each of the four sides. Palladio took the main temple form, a sacred form to most civilizations prior and put them on regular house making them secular. In the Villa Rotunda, most of the work was done in the basement. The kitchen, food storage, and bathroom was all hidden underneath in the basement. The rest of the house was like a “party house”. There were many rooms to hold guests. Many people came from the crowded city to get fresh air in the country.

                     

http://viaggioinitaliacongoethe.altervista.org/tag/rotonda-del-palladio/

http://italyfromtheinside.com/2012/11/our-long-weekend-in-veneto-discovering-an-unknown-part-of-italy-third-and-last-day.html/villa-la-rotonda-plan

      Another one of Palladio’s work was the Villa Barbaro, built in 1560. This structure was very long and horizontal, unlike many of the building seen before this time. There was a strong symmetrical central axis. It was organized into three pavilions. ( a c b c a) Inside, the art was carved into the walls. The exterior is very plain but puts emphasize on important areas.

 

       In the colonial times, as our country was just starting to form, there was revival and reforms of styles. There was a huge revival of Grecian and roman styles within our political buildings as well as our homes. With exploration, new trade routes, and the industrial revolution, there was an expansion of new materials. There were materials being imported from all over the world. There was also a notion that if you could borrow from the Greeks and Romans, then you could borrow from anyone. There were no standards, many people were willing to “break the rules” and mix all kinds of styles.

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